The dialects of Georgian can be divided into an eastern and a western
group on the basis of shared features; a total of 17 can be identified. They
differ from each other in certain aspects of phonology, morphology, syntax, and
vocabulary, but all retain an overall set of features not very dissimilar to
the standard language. Some of the dialects have come under the strong
influence of neighboring languages. Ingilo, spoken in
a part of the Alazani river valley that is now in
the addition of ჲ- y- and ჳ- w- before certain vowels (as in ერთი erti → ჲერთი yerti one, ორი ori → ჳორი wori two, etc.)
a distinction between long and short vowels
additional vowel sounds not found in the standard language
presence of both ჴ q and ყ q' sounds
the use of the n-plural
plural adjectival forms
non-standard verb forms
words not found in the standard language.
In general, the mountain dialects are more conservative and preserve a number of archaisms that have disappeared from other dialects. However, the simplification of certain complexities of standard Georgian also occurs in the dialects. The standard literary language is based on Kartlian dialect of the eastern lowlands.
Georgian has exerted an influence on other languages of the area, especially on Ts'ova-Tush and on some of the Tsezic languages.